Memory is an important process of human behavior because it enables the brain to encode, store and retrieve acquired knowledge about the environment. Memory (together whit other cognitive functions) creates predictive scenarios and generates thoughts, decisions, and responses.
Neuropsychologists have split memory into two systems: declarative or explicit data and non-declarative or implicit data. Declarative memory does the effort of recalling events and facts. Non-declarative memory retains information regarding well-structured and effortless processes: habits, reflexes, motor, and emotional responses.
Long-term memory refers to what information, no longer being used or processed, can be remembered from the past. Long-term memory is divided into two different types: declarative and non-declarative memory. Declarative memory manages facts and events, and the non-declarative memory manages skills and other cognitive functions
Declarative memory (fact-and-event memory) it is also termed explicit memory. It refers to memory for words, scenes, faces, and stories, and it is assessed by conventional testing of recall and recognition. It can be brought to mind and its content can be "declared". It is dependent on the temporal lobe system. For study purposes, it is divided into semantic memory and episodic memory
Semantic memory refers to memory facts and knowledge that are no longer ascribable to any particular occasion in life (without necessarily remembering where and when the person acquires it). Thus, semantic memory, created through either single or repeated experience, represents a more abstract generalization of experience that may give rise to abstract concepts and categorization.
Episodic memory refers to the memory of episodic events that contain what, where, and when information. This is the major type of memory encoded in our daily life. Episodic memory enables individuals to remember their personally experienced past - that is, to remember experienced events as embedded in a matrix of other personal happening in subjective time. It depends on, but transcends, the range of the capabilities of semantic memory. The most distinctive aspect of episodic memory is the kind of conscious awareness that characterizes recollection of past happenings.
Non-declarative memory is manifested through execution rather than recollection. An important principle is the ability to extract the common elements from a series of separate events gradually. Non-declarative memory provides for multiple unconscious ways of responding to the world. Here arise the habits and preferences that are inaccessible to conscious recollection. The non-declarative memories are formed by past events; they influence our current behavior and mental life
Working Memory refers to the capacity to maintain temporarily a limited amount of information in mind, which can then be used to support various abilities, including learning, reasoning, and preparation for action. It is considered to holds only the most recently activated, or conscious, a portion of long-term memory, and it moves these activated elements into and out of brief, temporary memory storage
Unlike short-term memory, working memory is not only a storage site, but it is also a framework of interacting processes that involve the temporary storage and manipulation of information in the service of performing complex cognitive activities